Article 2:
Everyone is entitled to all the rights and freedoms set forth in this Declaration, without distinction of any kind, such as race, colour, sex, language, religion, political or other opinion, national or social origin, property, birth or other status. Furthermore, no distinction shall be made on the basis of the political, jurisdictional or international status of the country or territory to which a person belongs, whether it be independent, trust, non-self-governing or under any other limitation of sovereignty.

Famous Applications/Cases

Race, Color, National Origin, and Language: The Grounds of Discrimination

Apartheid in South Africa

Segregation in the US (Brown v. Board of Education)

Affirmative Action

Recent application: gay and lesbian rights (boy scouts case), gender discrimination (EU Council Directive 76/20/EEC – equal pay for equal work) etc


For future elaboration, see Morsink, section 3.3

Peter Danchin, Columbia University