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In the 5th century BCE, a religious teacher called the 'Buddha,' the 'Enlightened one,' is believed to have wandered through northern India—though his teachings were only recorded after a gap of several centuries. His life is described in the Imperial Gazetteer. The Imperial Gazetteer also provides a brief account of early Buddhist literature in India.

Professor Rachel McDermott considers why Ambedkar chose to convert to Buddhism in 1956.

Professor Dennis Dalton discusses the significance of Buddhism for Ambedkar.