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Although Malcolm and Elijah Muhammad used the Bible in their teachings, they believed that Christianity, as practiced by African-Americans, placed more emphasis on suffering and receiving a reward in the hereafter. Instead, they argued that waging a battle for equal justice was something to be pursued here and now through the unity of Islam. They also argued that it was the religion of white men who enslaved blacks and that it was used to support their belief in African-American inferiority. In modern times, whites often approached black clergy (ministers) who they believed could deliver the votes of their congregation. In this way they exerted their control over the African-American community through the black clergy and Malcolm saw this as being a "handmaiden" or servant seeking to win the approval of whites. He viewed this as the "curse of the black man" since these acts ultimately represented betrayal. Malcolm's beliefs changed over time and he knew by the 60s that his views concerning Christianity and the black clergy did not hold true for all Christian churches. He urged alliances with any churches that had Black nationalist goals and cited, for example, Reverend Milton Galamison as an activist minister. [see "Malcolm X Speaks", p. 41]. The African-American church in fact embodied the first political ideals that led to Black nationalist thought. Early Black Nationalists associated with the Christian church included David Walker and Henry Highland Garnet.