Orange County Sanitation District Response to El Niño forecast
How Orange County California used a seasonal forecast in wastewater planning during the 1997-98 El Niño

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Principle 4: Climate
By October 1997, two high-level meetings on El Niño had taken place in the political arena: one convened by California State Governor Pete Wilson, and a subsequent meeting in Washington D.C., bringing to broad attention the forecast for a strong El Niño event that winter. In California, past experience showed that El Niño is often associated with above-normal rainfall. The official forecast, issued in October for southern California for January to March 1998, was for a 50% chance of above normal rainfall, 30% chance of normal and 20% chance of below normal rainfall. Since this region is a winter rainfall region, with most of the annual precipitation falling in that part of the year (see plot of average monthly rainfall in Orange County), the implication was that there enhanced possibility of flooding.