A rhythmic device in which the melody continues at a fixed tempo while the accompanying instruments double the tempo.

hard bop

A loose term for a large variety of jazz styles that appeared after bebop in the 1950s.

Art Blakey & The Jazz Messengers (1958)

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Simultaneous sounding of two or more tones.

head arrangement

A musical arrangement made up (usually collectively) during a performance.

hi-hat cymbal

Two cymbals on a single rod that snap together when operated by a foot pedal.

Max Roach - Hi-Hat

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The division of a melody into separate parts for different voices or instruments, resulting in a kind of cross-talk.


An individualized and loose form of unison, especially in early jazz.


A low note played loudly on a reed instrument. (See also overblowing).


Hot jazz (as distinct from the music of sweet bands or commercial music) was a name for early jazz.

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